What We Learned About Steve Jobs' Health After His Death

Steve Jobs was one of the most influential American businessmen in history.

Steve Jobs' Diagnosi

2012 article published in the journal of Preventive Medicine, Steve Jobs was diagnosed with a gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor also known as an islet cell tumor. 

Surgery And Alternative Medicine

Jobs delayed surgery on his tumor for about nine months. During that time, he pursued alternative medicines like acupuncture, botanicals, and dietary restrictions.

The Whipple Procedure

In 2004, Jobs reportedly underwent a reconstructive surgery known as the Whipple operation (via Britannica). According to Mayo Clinic.

Steve Jobs' Liver Transplant

In 2009, Jobs released information that his notable weight loss was due to a hormone imbalance Mayo Clinic says that neuroendocrine tumors may release excess hormones.

Radionuclide Therapy

Same year that he had the liver transplant Fortune reported that Jobs also traveled to Switzerland to receive an experimental treatment during his medical leave of absence.

According to ABC, Jobs received peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Per National Cancer Institute, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) involves the injection of a radioactive peptide.

The therapy helps treat forms of neuroendocrine tumors by targeting and killing cancer cells while leaving the healthy cells unharmed.

In late 2011, Jobs passed away at 56 years old, eight years after his initial diagnosis (via Pancreatic Cancer Action Network).